ARE YOU READY?
One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible after effects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the earth, as the huge plates that form the earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes, the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage.
KNOW THE TERMS
Familiarize yourself with these terms to help identify an earthquake hazard:
A sudden slipping or movement of a portion of the earth's crust, accompanied and followed by a series of vibrations.
An earthquake of similar or lesser intensity that follows the main earthquake.
The fracture across which displacement has occurred during an earthquake. The slippage may range from less than an inch to more than 10 yards in a severe earthquake.
The place on the earth's surface directly above the point on the fault where the earthquake rupture began. Once fault slippage begins, it expands along the fault during the earthquake and can extend hundreds of miles before stopping.
Vibrations that travel outward from the earthquake fault at speeds of several miles per second. Although fault slippage directly under a structure can cause considerable damage, the vibrations of seismic waves cause most of the destruction during earthquakes.
The amount of energy released during an earthquake, which is computed from the amplitude of the seismic waves. A magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter Scale indicates an extremely strong earthquake. Each whole number on the scale represents an increase of about 30 times more energy released than the previous whole number represents. Therefore, an earthquake measuring 6.0 is about 30 times more powerful than one measuring 5.0.
WHAT TO DO BEFORE AN EARTHQUAKE
Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identify potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling, and follow local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes.
SIX WAYS TO PLAN AHEAD
1. Check for Hazards in the Home
-Fasten shelves securely to walls.
-Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
-Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.
-Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere people sit.
-Brace overhead light fictures.
-Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.
-Secure a water heater by straping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor.
-Repair any deep cracks in ceiling or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects.
-Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.
2. Identify Safe Places Indoor and Outdoors
-Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table.
-Against an inside wall
-Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over.
-In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines, overpasses or elevated expressways.
3. Educate Youself and Family Members
-Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on earthquaks.
-Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police, or fire department and which radio station to tune to for emergency information.
-Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity and water.
4. Have Disaster Supplies on Hand
-Flashlight and extra batteries
-Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries.
-First aid kit and manual.
-Emergency food and water.
-Nonelectric can opener.
-Cash and credit cards.
5. Develope an Emergency Communication Plan
-In case family members are seperaterd from one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), develope a plan for reuniting after a disaster.
-Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact". After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person.
6. Help Your Community Get Ready
-Publish a special section in your local newspaper with emergency information on earthquakes. Localize the information by printing the phone number of local emergency services office, the American Red Cross, and hospitals.
-Conduct a week-long series on locating hazards in the home.
-Work with local emergency services and American Red Cross officials to prepare special reports for people with mobility impairments on what to do during an earthquake.
-Provide tips on conducting earthquake drills in the home.
-Interview representatives of the gas, electric, and water companies about shutting off utilities.
-Work together in your community to apply your knowledge to building codes, retofitting programs, hazard hunts, and neighborhood and family emergency plans.
WHAT TO DO DURING AN EARTHQUAKE
Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
-DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other pieces of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn't a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
-Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
-Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light ficture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place.
-Use a doorway for shelter only if its in close proximity to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, loadbearing doorway.
-Stay inside until shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave.
-Be Aware that the electricty may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.
-DO NOT use the elevators.
-Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
-Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exists, and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the 1933 Long Beach earthquake occured when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.
If in a moving vehicle
-Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.
-Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.
If trapped under debris
-Do not light a match.
-Do not move about or kick up dust.
-Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
-Tap on a pipe or wall so resuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.
WHAT TO DO AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE
Expect aftershocks These secondary shockwaves are ussally less violent than the main quake but can be strong enogh to do additional damage to weakened structures and can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.
Listen to a battery-operated radio or television. Listen for the latest emergency information.
Use the telephone only for emergency calls
Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.
Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorties say it is safe.
Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. These are also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called "tidal waves"). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.
Help injured or trapped persons. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance such as infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not remove seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.
-Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.
-Inspect the entire length of chimineys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire
-Check for gas leaks If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned on by a professional.
-Look for electical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricty at the main fuse box or circut breaker. If you have to step in the water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice.
-Check for sewage and water lines damage. If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.
Source: FEMA 2007